Five Tips for Tactical Management

Sometimes, you just need to get on with the work. You need to give yourself some breathing room so you can think for a while. Here are some tips that will help you tackle the day-to-day management work:

  1. Schedule and conduct your one-on-ones. Being a manager means you make room for  the people stuff: the one-on-ones, the coaching and feedback or the meta-coaching or the meta-feedback that you offer in the one-on-ones. Those actions are tactical and if you don’t do them, they become strategic.
  2. As a manager, make sure you have team meetings. No, not serial status meetings. Never those. Problem solving meetings, please. The more managers you manage, the more critical this step is. If you miss these meetings, people notice. They wonder what’s wrong with you and they make up stories. While the stories might be interesting, you do not want people making stories up about what is wrong with you or your management, do you?
  3. Stop multitasking and delegate. Your people are way more capable than you think they are. Stop trying to do it all. Stop trying to do technical work if you are a manager. Take pride in your management work and do the management work.
  4. Stop estimating on behalf of your people. This is especially true for agile teams. If you don’t like the estimate, ask them why they think it will take that long, and then work with them on removing obstacles.
  5. If you have leftover time, it’s time to work on the strategic work. What is the most important work you and your team can do? What is your number one project? What work should you not be doing?  This is project portfolio management. You might find it difficult to make these decisions. But the more you make these decisions, the better it is for you and your group.

Okay, there are your five tips. Happy management.

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Is Your Culture Working the Way You Think it Is?

Long ago, I was a project manager and senior engineer for a company undergoing a Change Transformation. You know the kind, where the culture changes, along with the process. The senior managers had bought into the changes. The middle managers were muddling through, implementing the changes as best they could.

Us project managers and the technical staff, we were the ones doing the bulk of the changes. The changes weren’t as significant as an agile transformation, but they were big.

One day, the Big Bosses, the CEO and the VP Engineering spoke at an all-hands meeting. “You are empowered,” they said. No, they didn’t say it as a duet. They each said it separately. They had choreographed speeches, with great slide shows, eight by ten color glossies, and pictures. They had a vision. They just knew what the future would hold.

I managed to keep my big mouth shut.

The company was not doing well. We had too many managers for not enough engineers or contracts. If you could count, you could see that.

I was traveling back and forth to a client in the midwest. At one point, the company owed me four weeks of travel expenses. I quietly explained that no, I was not going to book any more airline travel or hotel nights until I was paid in full for my previous travel.

“I’m empowered. I can refuse to get on a plane.”

That did not go over well with anyone except my boss, who was in hysterics. He thought it was quite funny. My boss agreed I should be reimbursed before I racked up more charges.

Somehow, they did manage to reimburse me. I explained that from now on, I was not going to float the company more than a week’s worth of expenses. If they wanted me to travel, I expected to be reimbursed within a week of travel. I got my expenses in the following Monday. They could reimburse me four days later, on Friday.

“But that’s too fast for us,” explained one of the people in Accounting.

“Then I don’t have to travel every other week,” I explained. “You see, I’m empowered. I’ll travel after I get the money for the previous trip. I won’t make a new reservation until I receive all the money I spent for all my previous trips. It’s fine with me. You’ll just have to decide how important this project is. It’s okay.”

The VP came to me and tried to talk me out of it. I didn’t budge. (Imagine that!) I told him that I didn’t need to float the company money. I was empowered.

“Do you like that word?”

“Sure I do.”

“Do you feel empowered?”

“Not at all. I have no power at all, except over my actions. I have plenty of power over what I choose to do. I am exercising that power. I realized that during your dog and pony show.

“You’re not changing our culture. You’re making it more difficult for me to do my job. That’s fine. I’m explaining how I will work.”

The company didn’t get a contract it had expected. It had a layoff. Guess who got laid off? Yes, I did. It was a good thing. I got a better job for more money. And, I didn’t have to travel every other week.

Change can be great for an organization. But telling people the culture is one thing and then living up to that thing can be difficult. That’s why this month’s management myth is Myth 34: You’re Empowered Because I Say You Are.

I picked on empowerment. I could have chosen “open door.” Or “employees are our greatest asset.” (Just read that sentence. Asset???)

How you talk about culture says a lot about what the culture is. Remember, culture is how you treat people, what you reward, and what is okay to talk about.

Go read Myth 34: You’re Empowered Because I Say You Are.

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Podcast with Cesar Abeid Posted

Cesar Abeid interviewed me, Project Management for You with Johanna Rothman. We talked about my tools for project management, whether you are managing a project for yourself or managing projects for others.

We talked about how to use timeboxes in the large and small, project charters, influence, servant leadership, a whole ton of topics.

I hope you listen. Also, check out Cesar’s kickstarter campaign, Project Management for You.

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Small Internal Releases Lead to Happy Customers

If you saw Large Program? Release More Often, you might have noted that I said,

You want to release all the time inside your building. You need the feedback, to watch the product grow.

Some of my clients have said, “But my customers don’t want the software that often.” That might be true.  You may have product constraints, also. If you are working on a hardware/software product, you can’t integrate the software with the hardware either until the hardware is ready or that often.

I’m not talking about releasing the product to the customers. I’m not talking about integrating the software with the hardware. I’m talking about small, frequent, fully functional releases that help you know that your software is actually done.

You don’t need hardening sprints. Or, if you do, you know it early. You know you have that technical debt now, not later. You can fix things when the problem is small. You see, I don’t believe in hardening sprints.

Hardening sprints mean you are not getting to done on your features. They might be too big. Your developers are not finishing the code, so the testers can’t finish the tests. Your testers might not be automating enough. Let’s not forget architectural debt. It could be any number of things. Hardening sprints are a sign that “the software is not done.” Wouldn’t you like to know that every three or four weeks, not every ten or twelve? You could fix it when the problem is small and easier to fix.

Here’s an example. I have a number of clients who develop software for the education market.  One of them said to me, “We can’t release all the time.”

I said, “Sure, you can’t release the grading software in the middle of the semester. You don’t want to upset the teachers. I get that. What about the how-to-buy-books module? Can you update that module?”

“Of course. That’s independent. We’re not sure anyone uses that in the middle of the semester anyway.”

I was pretty sure I knew better. Teachers are always asking students to buy books. Students procrastinate. Why do you think they call it “Student syndrome”? But I decided to keep my mouth shut. Maybe I didn’t know better. The client decided to try just updating the buy-the-book module as they fixed things.

The client cleaned up the UI and fixed irritating defects. They released internally every two weeks for about six weeks. They finally had the courage to release mid-semester. A couple of schools sent emails, asking why they waited so long to install these fixes. “Please fix the rest of these problems, as soon as you can. Please don’t wait.”

The client had never released this often before. It scared them. It didn’t scare their customers. Their customers were quite happy. And, the customers didn’t have all the interim releases; they had the planned mini-releases that the Product Owner planned.

My client still doesn’t release every day. They still have an internal process where they review their fixes for a couple of weeks before the fixes go live. They like that. But, they have a schedule of internal releases that is much shorter than what they used to have. They also release more often to their customers. The customers feel as if they have a “tighter” relationship with my client. Everyone is happier.

My client no longer has big-bang external releases. They have many small internal releases. They have happier customers.

That is what I invite you to consider.

Release externally whenever you want. That is a business decision. Separate that business decision from your ability to release internally all the time.

Consider moving to a continuous delivery model internally, or as close as you can get to continuous delivery internally. Now, you can decide what you release externally. That is a business decision.

What do you need to do to your planning, your stories, your technical practices to do so?

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Large Program? Release More Often

I’m working on the release planning chapter for Agile and Lean Program Management: Collaborating Across the Organization. There are many ways to plan releases. But the key? Release often. How often? I suggest once a month.

Yes, have a real, honest-to-goodness release once a month.

I bet that for some of you, this is counter-intuitive. “We have lots of teams. Lots of people. Our iterations are three weeks long. How can we release once a month?”

Okay, release every three weeks. I’m easy.

Look, the more people and teams on your program, the more feedback you need. The more chances you have for getting stuck, being in the death spiral of slowing inertia. What you want is to gain momentum.

Large programs magnify this problem.

If you want to succeed with a large agile program, you need to see progress, wherever it is. Hopefully, it’s all over the program. But, even if it’s not, you need to see it and get feedback. Waiting for feedback is deadly.

Here’s what you do:

  1. Shorten all iterations to two weeks or less. You then have a choice to release every two or four weeks.
  2. If you have three-week iterations, plan to release every three weeks.
  3. Make all features sufficiently small so that they fit into an iteration. This means you learn how to make your stories very small. Yes, you learn how. You learn what a feature set (also known as a theme) is. You learn to break down epics. You learn how to have multiple teams collaborate on one ranked backlog. Your teams start to swarm on features, so the teams complete one feature in one iteration or in flow.
  4. The teams integrate all the time. No staged integration.

Remember this picture, the potential for release frequency?

Potential Release Frequency

Potential for Release Frequency

That’s the release frequency outside your building.

I’m talking about your internal releasing right now. You want to release all the time inside your building. You need the feedback, to watch the product grow.

In agile, we’re fond of saying, “If it hurts, do it more often.” That might not be so helpful. Here’s a potential translation:  “Your stuff is too big. Make it smaller.”

Make your release planning smaller. Make your stories smaller. Integrate smaller chunks at one time. Move one story across the board at one time. Make your batches smaller for everything.

When you make everything smaller (remember Short is Beautiful?), you can go bigger.

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Management Feedback: Are You Abrasive or Assertive?

Let me guess. If you are a successful woman, in the past, you’ve been told you’re too abrasive, too direct, maybe even too assertive. Too much. See The One Word Men Never See In Their Performance Reviews.

Here’s the problem. You might be.

I was.

But never in the “examples” my bosses provided. The “examples” they provided were the ones when I advocated for my staff. The ones where I made my managers uncomfortable. The examples, where, if I had different anatomy, they would have relaxed afterwards, and we’d gone out for a beer.

But we didn’t.

Because my bosses could never get over the fact that I was a woman, and “women didn’t act this way.” Now, this was more than 20 years ago. (I’ve been a consultant for 20 years.) But, based on the Fast Company article, it doesn’t seem like enough culture has changed.

Middle and senior managers, here’s the deal: At work, you want your managers to advocate for their people. You want this. This is a form of problem-solving. Your first-line and middle managers see a problem. If they don’t have the entire context, explain the context to them. Now, does that change anything?

If it does, you, senior or middle manager, have been derelict in your management responsibility. Your first-line manager might have been able to solve the problem with his/her staff without being abrasive if you had explained the context earlier. Maybe you need to have more one-on-ones. Maybe all your first-line managers could have solved this problem in your staff meeting, as a cross-functional team. Are you canceling one-on-ones or canceling problem-solving meetings? Don’t do that.

Do you have a first-line manager who doesn’t want to be a manager? Maybe you fell prey to the myth of promoting the best technical person into a management position. You are not alone. Find someone who wants to work with people, and ask that person to try  management.

We all need feedback. Managers need feedback, too. Because managers leverage the work of others, they need feedback even more than technical people.

If you think a manager on your management team is “too” abrasive or assertive,” ask yourself, is this person female? Then ask yourself, “Would I say the same thing if this person looked as if she could be a large sports figure, male attributes and all?”

You see, the fact that I have the physical attributes of a short, kind-of cute woman has not bothered me one bit. I feel seven feet tall. I often act like it. I am not afraid to take chances or calculated risks. I am not afraid to talk to anyone in the organization about anything. How else would I accomplish the work that needs to be done? (You may have noticed that I write tall, too.)

Abrasive and assertive are code words for fearless problem solvers. Don’t penalize the women—or the men—in your organization who are fearless problem solvers.

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Scale Agile With Small-World Networks Posted

I posted my most recent Pragmatic Manager newsletter, Scale Agile With Small-World Networks on my site.

This is a way you can scale agile out, not up. No hierarchies needed.

Small-world networks take advantage of the fact that people want to help other people in the organization. Unless you have created MBOs (Management By Objectives) that make people not want to help others, people want to see the entire product succeed. That means they want to help others. Small-world networks also take advantage of the best network in your organization—the rumor mill.

If you enjoy reading this newsletter, please do subscribe. I let my readers know about specials that I run for my books and when new books come out first.

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One Experimental Possibility: Self-Organization from Component Teams to Feature Teams

If you are organized as platform team, middleware, and front-end teams, you have a  component team organization. That made sense at one point in your history. But if you are transitioning to agile or have transitioned, and if you want to use agile on a program, that might not make much sense now.

If you have a program,  you  have many people in your teams. Your platform team might not be 7 people, but several teams, maybe 50 people, if you are large enough for a program. Your middleware teams could be another 100 people, and your front-end teams could be another 100 people. You have lots of people and lots of teams.

I bet you do not have an even ratio of platform, middleware, and front-end teams. You have experts, here, there, and everywhere. And, if you are anything like my clients, you have trouble releasing features in an agile program.

What are the problems?

  • You have experts embedded in a wide variety of teams
  • The experts need to multitask to serve a variety of projects, so you incur a cost of delay to multitasking and queues
  • You are not releasing features. You have trouble when the components come together.

Even if the teams are agile, your program, the collection of projects is not agile.

What can you do?

You can ask the organization to try this as an experiment, for no longer than 2 weeks:

  • The only measure of success is running tested features. And, no one, especially no manager, gets to compare teams. This is an experiment that the organization is going to learn from. Some teams will have small and easy features. Some teams will not. This is not a competition. If you start comparing teams, the teams will game this measure and the organization will lose the learning. It’s not about the number of features. It’s about learning how to manage the stream of features through feature teams.
  • Ask three teams to volunteer: one platform, one middleware, and one front-end team. If more teams want to volunteer, fine. But you need three.
  • Those teams stop multitasking. Those teams agree on one ranked backlog among the three teams.  (I know, this might be the most difficult thing your organization has tried. I know you have experts. Ignore the fact you need experts everywhere. Agree on only one ranked backlog.)
  • Ask these three teams to self-organize as feature teams for now. No changing managers. No changing desks. They get to decide how to organize. If you are a manager, no decreeing who is a feature team with whom. Let the teams decide who is on what team. This works best in one large room. However, I have seen geographically distributed teams who were desperate to release a feature do this over distance.
  • Ask the Product Owner for these teams to make the stories as small as they can make them, preferably one or two team-days or less. This could be a huge challenge for the Product Owner. That’s okay. This is an experiment. I recommend a kanban board and limiting work in progress for this experiment.
  • Tell the teams that if they don’t have the expert they need for a story, that’s okay. They can pair, swarm, or mob together to get the story done. But, they are not allowed to interrupt another team.
  • The teams work on their backlog for this experiment (not any longer). They see what happens when everyone works in feature teams of their own making and no one multitasks, to get features to done. Remember, this is an experiment.
  • Retrospect at the end of this experiment so they can see what happened.
  • Decide what to do next. This is an experiment.

To sum: One self-organizing team, composed of platform, middleware, and front-end people. One backlog. One product owner. No longer than two weeks. Visualize the workflow. Limit work in progress. The only measure of success is running, tested features. No multitasking. Retrospect at the end. See what happens.

There are many things that can go wrong. But, there are many possibilities of learning here. This works best if the managers step back and don’t interfere. It works best with collocated teams. You can do this (and I have) with geographically distributed teams.

When I’ve facilitated this, the teams learn tons about how to work together and what they needed to do for their program. In several organizations, they wanted to do this again as an experiment.

Managers have to allow the teams to organize the way the product requires. Otherwise, you have Conway’s Law in spades.

When I have done this, I have had these results:

  • Most of the time, the teams were able to finish some of the features in their backlog without too much trouble. These features required some of the team to work together, either discussing the feature, or pairing.
  • They were able to finish most of the features in their backlog with a little trouble. These features required the entire team to work together.
  • Some of their features were too large to finish in the timebox.

These results don’t surprise me. I bet they don’t surprise you.

Every so often, teams have trouble finishing any features. They learned that they did not have sufficient expertise to do anything on their features in their backlog. One team spiked a feature for a day, swarming on it. They had more questions than when they started. They needed an expert who was in another team.

If you put the focus on releasing running, tested features, that is what people will do. But you have to focus on it.

Component teams aren’t bad, per se. But component teams don’t get you running, tested features. This is one possibility. Based on your experiment and reflection, you could try something else.

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Change is Learning: No Silver Bullets or Quick Fixes

Way back when I was a developer, my professors taught me structured design and design by contract. Those were supposed to be the silver bullets for programming.  You see, if you specified things enough, and structured things enough, everything would all work out.

I thought I was the only idiot that structure and specification didn’t work for. Why did I have to iterate and increment?

At my first job, we had design reviews and code reviews. I learned a lot. I worked on a government contract, and the government mandated those reviews. They were useful, and they were supposed to be a silver bullet. Because we implemented features (yes, back in the ’70s, we implemented features), the reviews were helpful in the small.

But, I worked on a program. There is just so much design by contract can do for a program. I was in Boston. I had questions for my counterpart in New Mexico. I was not allowed to talk to that person. (To this day, I don’t know who that person was. That person was part of another subcontractor.) I had to send my questions up through the project management layers to the program team and down the other side. My questions never did get answered. I left that company before I knew if my code worked with the entire system.

I transitioned into project management, program management and people management. I have seen my share of fads, bullets, and fixes for the software departments.

As a director in the early ’90’s I got sent to TQM school (Total Quality Management). My company thought it would change the way we managed, and revolutionize our organization. It would be our “silver bullet.” I’m pretty sure those were somebody’s words. They weren’t mine.

I got a certificate for my five days of intensive training (powerpoint and calculations). I might still have it somewhere.

I became excellent at calculating many costs: the cost of quality, the cost of not doing things right,  the cost of technical debt, even what we might consider the cost of delay. I dutifully explained these costs to my senior management. Was I able to persuade my company of the cost of not doing the right thing, even though I was a middle manager, a program manager, and had been TQM’d?

No. My management was too concerned that doing things “right” would prevent us from making money. I had data—yes, data—that proved them wrong. But their belief systems overcame my data.

Later, after I started my consulting business, many of my clients fell into the ISO 9000 and the CMM/CMMI quick fix/silver bullet traps. The ISO joke made the rounds: “You could specify a cement life jacket with ISO, as long as you define the right process for creating it.” Well, no. But the jokes still persisted. (Many people find value in ISO. Some do not.)

And, with the CMM/CMMI? Oh, my clients had binders full of documentation, but they weren’t releasing software. They hired me on the side, because their silver bullet of CMM/CMMI process wasn’t working. Somehow, my approaches of timeboxes and increments, and iterations, and thinking about their projects was. (Many people find  value in using CMM/CMMI. Some do not.)

Now we have agile. If you read my work, you know I lean towards agile and lean. At the same time, I say that agile is not for everyone. Agile is not a silver bullet.

We have no silver bullets in software.

We have difficult problems to solve. We must think about our approaches, each and every time. We must consider our context. That why I wrote Manage It! Your Guide to Modern, Pragmatic Project Management. Because every single project is unique. That’s why I’m writing Agile and Lean Program Management: Collaborating Across the Organization. That book is a principle-based approach to program management, to scaling agile past one or two teams. Not a one-size fits all approach to program management.

And, because we have no silver bullets in software, and because we have no quick fixes, my management myth this month is We Need a Quick Fix or a Silver Bullet.

It’s very tempting to think that transitioning to agile might be a quick fix or a silver bullet. Transitioning to agile or lean might help you. It won’t be quick.

Any transition is a change. Change takes time. Change is learning. Developing software is learning. You can help yourself learn faster with some approaches: make value obvious instead of tasks, get feedback often, visualize your work, etc. For many of you starting your agile journey, these are cultural changes.

The more you challenge the culture, the longer the change takes because people need to learn what to do and how to work. Cultural change is not a silver bullet. It is certainly not a quick fix.

Read Management Myth 33: We Need a Quick Fix or a Silver Bullet.

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Projects Where You Can’t Predict an End Date

Do you have projects where you can’t predict an end date? These tend to be a job search, a change project, and with a tip of the hat to Cesar Abeid, your life. I like to call these “emergent” projects.

You might prefer to call them “adaptable” projects, but to me, every project has to be adaptable. These projects are emergent. You need to plan, but not too much. You need to replan. You need to take advantage of serendipity.

My column this quarter for projectmanagement.com is Applying Agile to Emergent Projects. (Free registration required.)

Enjoy!

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